Task 3: What theories and literature exist that explain, predict, and/or guide the development and use of TELEs?
Create hyperlinked pages that provide a critical analysis of 4 directed readings and provide a set of appropriate references to TELE literature.
A. Own research on theories
Much research is based on constructivist epistemology (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt [CTGV], 1992a, 1992b; Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999; Savery & Duffy, 1996).
Based on experimental learning through real life experience to construct and conditionalize knowledge. It is problem based, adaptive learning, that challenges faulty schema, integrates new knowledge with existing knowledge, and allows for creation of original work or innovative procedures. The types of learners are self-directed, creative, innovative, drawing upon visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, bodily kinesthetic, verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligences. The purpose in education is to become creative and innovative through analysis, conceptualizations, and synthesis of prior experience to create new knowledge. The educator’s role is to mentor the learner during heuristic problem solving of ill-defined problems by enabling quested learning. The learning goal is the highest order of learning: heuristic problem solving, metacognitive knowledge, creativity, and originality that may modify existing knowledge and allow for creation of new knowledge. (wikipedia)
Constructionism is a philosophy of education in which children learn by doing and making in a public, guided, collaborative process including feedback from peers, not just from teachers. They explore and discover instead of being force fed information, or subjected to a regime of social control as in the Prussian system adopted in the US and elsewhere, sometimes called Instructionism. Constructionist guidance has to be informed by a knowledge of what there is to explore and discover, including our ignorance, and of a variety of approaches that can be used for children at different developmental levels with various degrees of preparation. (laptop.org)
Adult Learning Theory
- Need to Know: Adults need to know the reason for learning.
- Experience: Adults draw upon their experiences to aid their learning.
- Self Concept: Adult needs to be responsible for their decisions on education, involvement in planning and evaluation of their instruction.
- Readiness: The learning readiness of adults is closely related to the assumption of new social roles.
- Orientation: As a person learns new knowledge, he or she wants to apply it immediately in problem solving.
- Motivation: As a person matures, he or she receives their motivation to learn from internal factors.
From the perspective that cognition is distributed, the tools, rules, values and actors in a learning environment form a complex and interacting system (Hewitt, 1996).
Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown & Newman, 1989, See also Järvelä, 1995) focus on the authenticity in which knowledge is developed as well as the dialogue processes between stu- dents and adult guides or more experienced peers (Rogoff, 1990).
Järvilehto offers a radically new concept of the relationship between the organism and its environment, as well as the relationship between brain and mind, mind and body, and between experience and behaviour. According to Järvilehto’s idea, all the physiological activities and their relationship to the environment constitute a single system that supports and adapts the individual. Questioning traditional psychological concepts, Järvilehto points out that the nervous system is only one part of the organism-environment system (Wolf, 1998).
Online apprenticeship (Teles, 1993) refers to apprenticeship mediated by access to masters and peers on computer networks. The learner accesses the online learning environment, which is characterized by attributes, such as one-to-many and many-to-many communication; asynchronicity or time independence; place independence; text-based presentation; and com- puter mediation (Harasim, 1990). In this environment, online apprentices can build and share knowledge through goal-oriented learning interactions with peers, experts, and mentors, and through full-time access to specialized sources of information.
Current Trends in Educational Technology Research: The Study of Learning Environments(2002)
Educational researchers should, therefore, study which characteristics of these environments help or hinder learning. The environments themselves present information in many ways and often allow students to add their own inscriptions. Researchers should study how sharing information in these ways encourages useful discourse about the environment that, in turn, supports learning. Now that educators have acknowledged the social nature of learning, researchers should study how technology can be used to support interaction among students and teachers, and how the responsibility for learning can be fairly and meaningfully distributed within learning communities. Finally, research methodologies should adjust to the demands of studying increasingly more complex interactions between students and their environments. Design experiments are a good start.
Studying learning from the perspective of the neurosciences. Educational Technology researchers have been content to build conceptual frameworks within which to conduct research from the metaphors of psychology rather than from the mechanisms of neurobiology. However, neuroscientists may be close to understanding learning in terms of neural activity (see sections of Dennett, 1995; Pinker, 1997; also Bruer, 1999). Should such an approach to the study of learning prove viable and useful, it can provide a fundamentally different view of how students learn.
Technology will inevitably play a role in the reform of public education, however radical that turns out to be. Educational technology researchers therefore have as much responsibility in studying the means and ends of school reform as anyone else. As our technologies become more able to bring information, learning materials, even learning environments to wherever people happen to be, the argument can be made that we no longer need to remember what we need to know; we can simply call it up and display it when it is needed. Teachers, parents, and politicians will expect students to master skills in information science and interpretation, maybe even at the expense of science or math or social studies. As a result, research will switch its current focus on learning with technology to a new focus on how students interpret and use what technology presents to them in real time.
Good pedagogical practice has a theory of learning at its core. However, no single best-practice e-learning standard has emerged, and may be unlikely given the range of learning and teaching styles, the potential ways technology can be implemented and the ways in which educational technology itself is changing. Various pedagogical approaches or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with e-learning programs.
- Social-constructivist – this pedagogy is particularly well afforded by the use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and on-line collaborative activities. It is a collaborative approach that opens educational content creation to a wider group including the students themselves. The One Laptop Per Child Foundation attempted to use a constructivist approach in its project.
- Laurillard’s Conversational Model is also particularly relevant to eLearning, and Gilly Salmon’s Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards.
- Cognitive perspective focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works.
- Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc.
- Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings.
- Contextual perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer support as well as pressure.
B. Own research on liturature
Methods and models of next generation technology en-hanced learning – White Paper
Mwanza-Simwami , Daisy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Clough, Gill; Whitelock, Denise; Ferguson, Rebecca and Sharples, Mike (2011). Methods and models of next generation technology enhanced learning – White Paper. In: Alpine Rendezvous 2011, 28-29 March 2011, La Clusaz, France.
Advances in Technology Enhanced Learning (2013)
Social network analysis denotes the study of the nature of interpersonal relationships and investigating as well as predicting their structural value. Discourse analysis is about investigating learning conversations (and its substitutes). Disposition analysis relates to studying potentials for action, particularly those of learning literacy. Context analysis lays focus on the ecosystem, i.e. spaces, situations, activities, in which learning takes place, taking account of differences in configuration (such as for mobile, informal, formal, or group use).
The study of motivation and engagement.
Source : iBooks
Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies(2012)
Game Changers explores the tools and processes that can improve the quality, flexibility, and scalability of postsecondary ed- ucation. The book takes a hard look at the education landscape today and asks what that landscape might look like tomorrow. It asks important questions and pushes us to open our minds about how technology will shape the universe of possibility for tomorrow’s students.
- How will your institution negotiate the new geography of learning? Technologies are reshaping how people learn and connect, and people are connecting to a global learning network previously inconceivable.
- In a world where information is always accessible, how will teaching and learning change? Learning is no longer bound by classrooms, libraries, or even instructors. Online tools make resources available to learners everywhere. Open-source learning can reach thousands of learners in nontraditional ways.
- What will constitute an institution of higher education in the future? More and more, competencies, not credit hours, determine credentials. A degree is no longer the only indicator of success. How we understand and assess learning is changing. Portfolios will augment standard assessment tools.
- How do we ready our institutions, our students, and ourselves for what higher education can—and must—become? Many institutions are piloting innovative models for education, and the entire community can benefit from the lessons learned.
Association for Educational Communications and Technology
A list of publications and books.
Using an adapted, task-level technology acceptance model to explain why instructors in higher education intend to use some learning management system tools more than others
Judith Schoonenboom, Using an adapted, task-level technology acceptance model to explain why instructors in higher education intend to use some learning management system tools more than others, Computers & Education, Volume 71, February 2014, Pages 247-256, ISSN 0360-1315, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.09.016.
C. Research going on in the TELE field
Self-Regulated Learning in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments: lessons of a European peer review (2006)
In developing the TELE-SRL we used a model that included both process and component aspects. For the process, like Zimmerman (1998c; 2000), we distinguished three stages: (1) planning the learning activity, (2) monitoring the learning activity and (3) evaluating the outcome of the learning activity. Within each stage, we distinguished four components: (1) cognitive, (2) emotional, (3) motivational and (4) social.
FP7 2011-2012(The Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union for the funding of research and technological development in Europe) :
The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (FP1 – FP8) are funding programmes created by the European Union in order to support and encourage research in the European Research Area (ERA). The specific objectives and actions vary between funding periods. FP7 is from 2007-2013.
Target outcomes for Objective 8.1, ‘Technology-enhanced Learning’ (full document)
- Technology-enhanced Learning systems endowed with the capabilities of human tutors. Research should advance systems’ capabilities to react to learners’ abilities and difficulties, and provide systematic feedback based on innovative ways of interpreting the user’s responses. The systems shall improve learners’ metacognitive skills, understand and exploit the underlying drivers of their learning behaviours.
- Educational technologies for science, technology and maths: (b1) Supporting students to understand and construct their personal conceptual knowledge and meaning of scientific, technological and/or mathematical subjects; activating curiosity and reasoning, and creative applications of the theory. (b2) Supporting European wide federation and use of remote laboratories and virtual experimentations for learning and teaching purposes. Research shall include work on user interfaces for specific pedagogical contexts that mediate the complexities of creation and usability of experiments.
- Advanced solutions for fast and flexible deployment of learning opportunities at the workplace (targeting, in particular, SMEs): enable faster, situated, just-in-time up-/reskilling, and lower the costs/efforts of developing and maintaining quality instructional material in training processes. Proposals must include research on novel business training models, and on how to overcome organisational, inter-organisational and individual barriers to widespread adoption of the developed technologies. SMEs shall be the final users of the solutions, and be actively involved in clearly justified, representative and sizeable pilots.
- Computational tools fostering creativity in learning processes: innovative tools encouraging nonlinear, non-standard thinking and problem-solving, as well as the exploration and generation of new knowledge, ideas and concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts.
- Exploratory activities for fundamentally new forms of learning through ICT; establishment of a pan-European network of living schools for validations, demonstrations and showcases.
- Unlock the potential of the individual by a stronger and smarter adaptation and personalization of educational technologies.
- Significantly higher level of effective, personalised, ICT-based tutoring, leading to its wide-spread penetration in schools and at home.
- Higher level of engagement of youngsters in science, technology and maths, through novel educational software and opening up opportunities to access and use of laboratory equipments and virtual experiments.
- Faster, more timely and more cost-effective up/re-skilling through learning technologies and their sustained adoption by SMEs.
- Emergence of new learning models, including models invoking creativity
Projects Technology-enhanced learning in the ‘enlarged Europe’ :
- ARISE – Augmented Reality in School Environments
- CALIBRATE – Calibrating eLearning in Schools
- ELU – Enhanced Learning Unlimited
- eMAPPS.com – Motivating Active Participation of Primary Schoolchildren in Digital Online Technologies for Creative Opportunities through Multimedia
- iCamp – Innovative, Inclusive, Interactive & Intercultural Learning Campus
- LOGOS – Knowledge-on-Demand for Ubiquitous Learning
- LT4eL – Language Technology for eLearning
- mGBL – Mobile Game Based Learning
- UNITE – Unified eLearning environment for the school
- VEMUS – Virtual European Music School
Further info : Technology-enhanced learning in the ‘enlarged Europe’.
Projects in technology-enhanced learning :
- ALICE – Adaptive Learning via Intuitive/Interactive, Collaborative and Emotional systems
- ARISTOTELE – Personalised Learning & Collaborative Working Environments Fostering Social Creativity and Innovations Inside the Organisations
- eCUTE – Education in Cultural Understanding, Technologically-Enhanced
- ImREAL – Immersive Reflective Experience-based Adaptive Learning
- iTEC – Innovative Technologies for an Engaging Classroom
- GaLA – Game and Learning Alliance
- Metafora – Learning to learn together: A visual language for social orchestration of educational activities
- MIROR – Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion
- MIRROR – Reflective Learning at Work
- NEXT-TELL – Next Generation Teaching, Education and Learning for Life – http://www.next-tell.eu
- SIREN – Social games for conflIct REsolution based on natural iNteraction
- TERENCE – An Adaptive Learning System for Reasoning about Stories with Poor Comprehenders and their Educators
- TEL-Map – Future gazing TEL: the roadmap for the unknown Learning landscape – http://telmap.org
Further info : FP7 projects in technology-enhanced learning
The European Network of Excellence in TEL
EFQUEL’s mission is to enhance the quality of technology enhanced learning in Europe by providing services and support for all stakeholders and by involving actors in a European and international community of users and experts in order to share experience of how technology enhanced learning can be used to strengthen individual, organisational, local and regional development, digital and learning literacy, and promote social cohesion and personal development.
Technology Enhanced Learning in the Economic Crisis:How Learning Technologies Assist in Bridging the Budget Gap and Overcoming the Crisis
Technology enhanced learning program UK
D. Research in adjacent fieds
I must agree with the statements in this paper that workload has considerably risen in my blended-learning classes while on the other hand my wage didn’t. My availability online has also increased, expectations of 24/7 are around the corner ?
19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED LEARNING & TRAINING; dec 4-6 2013; http://www.online-educa.com
ICALT is an annual international conference on Advanced Learning Technologies and Technology-enhanced Learning; July 7-10, 2014; http://www.ask4research.info/icalt/2014/
EC-TEL 2013 : EIGHTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING; 17 – 21 September 2013; http://ectel2013.cs.ucy.ac.cy
ICWL is an annual international conference on web-based learning; October 6-9 2013; http://icwl2013.tajen.edu.tw
ITS 2014 : 12th international Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems; 5 -9 june; http://its2014.its-conferences.com
AIED is an interdisciplinary community at the frontiers of the fields of computer science, education and psychology. It promotes rigorous research and development of interactive and adaptive learning environments for learners of all ages, across all domains. The society brings together a community of members in the field through the organization of Conferences, a Journal, and other activities of interest.
LTRI : the Learning Technology Research Institute
EFQUEL | European Foundation for Quality in e-Learning
The main theory on which TELEs are based is constructivism. There is a very wide substructure of theories that can be used in the development and use of TELEs, a list :
- adult learning theory
- artificial intelligence
- augmented reality
- behavioral perspective
- cognitive apprenticeship
- cognitive perspective
- constructivist design
- contextual perspectives
- cooperative learning
- design-based research
- distributed cognition
- educational psychology
- emotional perspective
- experiential learning
- exploratory learning
- instructional design
- learning by design
- learning theory
- online apprenticeship
- problem-based learning
- self-regulated learning
- serious games
- situated cognition
- social network analysis
- software engineering
- systemic psychology
- transactional distance
Technology Supported Assessment
In overall I found theories and literature on how the brain learns and how the brain can be used, psychology aspects, emotional influences and implications, social and environmental interactions, outcomes of the proces…
Learning by design, James Paul Gee
How can TELEs be designed to stimulate learning through experiences ?
Many TELEs just transpose content delivery and some classical evaluation possibilities (skill and drill, scripted instruction,
standardised multiple-choice testing) to an technology enviroment. Instead the following principles should be applied :
- Co-design : students should be able to have a say in the design of their own learning
- Customize : different learning styles should be available
- Identity : the identity of the person one would become by learning the subjects should be integrated in the TELE design, e.g. design of the look and feel, terminology,…
- Manipulation and distributed knowledge : technologies to manipulate the subjects being studied should be available, e.g. change or elaborate on the content provided. Sharing of the kwnoledge acquired by the students should be possible.
- Well-ordered problems : a trajectory leading students through learning material with an increasing difficulty and complexity, scaffolding could be used to support the construction of knowledge
- Pleasantly frustrating : it should be made possible to learn in different difficulty levels with matching exercises
- Cycles of expertise : translating the principle to chapters and constructive exercises : the exercises should be build in such a way that each exercise introduces a new topic to be mastered, with or without some topics already covered. At the end of a chaper there should be a overall exercise combining the topics.
- Information on demand and just in time : the introductory theory and long theory explanations should be kept to a minimum, extra theory should be inserted while making the exercises
- Sandboxes : trial exercises or environments should be available before final grading exercises
- Skills as strategies : a general overview explaining how the skills being currently learned integrate in the larger view of the area being studied/job/craft should be mentioned
- System thinking : connections with other areas should be made, e.g. similarities, additions
- Meaning as action image : practical application in real world examples should be integrated